Organizational change necessarily entails letting go of parts of the status quo. Even when no existing processes are affected, we must let go of the belief that the status quo was ideal.
People carry out this letting go in their own ways, at their own times, for their own reasons. Because letting go is personal, those who accept change (acceptors) often come into conflict with those who are undecided, and with those who reject it (rejecters).
Although these tensions prove that Change is happening, they can limit effectiveness, sometimes threatening organizational survival. Managing these tensions makes change efforts more effective.
Among the many indicators of tension are the content and structure of the often-informal debate about the need for change. The debate tends to proceed in three stages.
- Early stages
- Acceptors are generally in a defensive position. Undecideds, who neither see the need for change, nor oppose it, quietly outnumber both acceptors and rejecters. rejecters tend to be vociferous — often more vociferous than acceptors.
- Estimating the sizes of these three populations is a common technique for gauging progress. But a better predictor of future progress is the content of the informal debate. Use focus groups to measure the power of the arguments used by acceptors and rejecters. Try to determine what keeps undecideds from deciding.
- Intermediate stages
- The need for change is now obvious to many. Acceptors are growing in number, if not effect. Rejecting change has become difficult to justify, marked by increasingly inventive re-justification of the status quo and increasingly energetic attacks on the case for change and on the acceptors themselves. In desperation, some rejecters adopt emotionally charged tactics, such as name-calling, blaming, and fearmongering.
- Since polarization of opinion in the group is usually deleterious, and since it and its effects can last beyond the change process, preventing polarization is preferable Use focus groups to measure
the power of the arguments used
by acceptors and rejectersto repairing it. Training in prevention and management of polarization of opinion is always valuable, but never more so than when that training is applied to preparing for organizational change efforts.
- Late stages
- Now the undecideds have accepted change, for the most part, as have most rejecters. Some of the most confirmed rejecters are those who feel most threatened by the change. They are often important to the organization. If polarization has set in, the last rejecters experience isolation and loss that sometimes turns to bitterness. Some depart the organization, voluntarily or otherwise.
- To achieve organizational acceptance with little bitterness or turnover, monitor the emotional energy of debate. If polarization sets in, professional intervention might be needed.
When people understand that diversity of opinion is a natural result of our uniqueness as people, leading to differences in letting go of the status quo they're more likely to see debate as helpful and constructive. Probably some of you, dear readers, disagree. That's OK. We're all different. Top Next Issue
For more about organizational change, see "Now We're in Chaos," Point Lookout for September 19, 2001; "Piling Change Upon Change: Management Credibility," Point Lookout for October 18, 2006; and an archive of past issues of Point Lookout relating to Organizational Change.
Is your organization embroiled in Change? Are you managing a change effort that faces rampant cynicism, passive non-cooperation, or maybe even outright revolt? Read 101 Tips for Managing Change to learn how to survive, how to plan and how to execute change efforts to inspire real, passionate support. Order Now!
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More articles on Organizational Change:
- Beyond WIIFM
- Probably the most widely used tactic of persuasion, "What's In It For Me," or WIIFM, can be
toxic to an organization. There's a much healthier approach that provides a competitive advantage to
organizations that use it.
- When Fear Takes Hold
- Leading an organization through a rough patch, we sometimes devise solutions that are elegant, but counterintuitive
or difficult to explain. Even when they would almost certainly work, a simpler fix might be more effective.
- When Change Is Hard: I
- Sometimes changing organizations goes smoothly. More often, it doesn't. Whatever methodology we use
— and there are many methodologies available — difficulties can arise. When change is hard,
what's happening? What makes change hard?
- Obstacles to Finding the Reasons Why
- When we investigate what went wrong, we sometimes encounter obstacles. Interviewing witnesses and participants
doesn't always uncover the reasons why. What are these obstacles?
- Reactance and Micromanagement
- When we feel that our freedom at work is threatened, we sometimes experience urges to do what is forbidden,
or to not do what is required. This phenomenon — called reactance — might explain
some of the dynamics of micromanagement.
Forthcoming issues of Point Lookout
- Coming January 24: Understanding Delegation
- It's widely believed that managers delegate some of their own authority and responsibility to their subordinates, who then use that authority and responsibility to get their work done. That view is unfortunate. It breeds micromanagers. Available here and by RSS on January 24.
- And on January 31: Nine Brainstorming Demotivators: I
- The quality of the output of brainstorming sessions is notoriously variable. One source of variation is the enthusiasm of contributors. Here's Part I of a set of nine phenomena that can limit contributions to brainstorm sessions. Available here and by RSS on January 31.
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