In Part I of this exploration of the challenges of Change, we examined two sources of difficulty — sources internal (our emotions) and source external (outside pressures). This time, we explore issues related to planning. We'll look at three sets of reasons why planning change is so difficult: unexpected linkages, unexpected detours, and the need for temporary bridges.
- Unexpected linkages
- Linkages between organizational elements are often informal and unaccounted for. When an unrecognized linkage exists, changing one of the linked elements requires that we deal with the other linked elements.
- For example, when one group is physically situated close to another, friendships and associations form. Some of those connections might be channels for ongoing knowledge exchange. Separating the two groups by moving one group to a distant location can stress those connections, degrading performance. Relocating them both together might be preferable.
- If we break linkages we don't understand, change can be hard. A plan to move one group might seem perfectly sound, but it can fail if it doesn't recognize the importance of bonds between people. What might seem like resistance could actually be the result of interrupted knowledge flow due to breaking connections.
- Unexpected detours and backtracking
- At times, only after we begin executing a change plan do we recognize some factors we neglected. When this happens, with a little luck, we can make adjustments and continue. But sometimes we have to stop or backtrack, replan, and begin again.
- For example, in an acquisition, if we intend to relocate the acquired IT department, we might find that relocation is impractical because key people would require financial assistance with real estate issues. And keeping those people in place might also incur unsustainable costs. The department relocation plan wasn't defective, though it didn't anticipate real estate market conditions.
- If a plan is incomplete, change can be hard. The people involved might not be resisting change — they might actually have legitimate issues that the plan didn't anticipate.
- Temporary bridges
- When we At times, only after we begin
executing a change plan
do we recognize some
factors we neglectedencounter or anticipate difficulty, we might not be able to change systems directly from their current configurations to the final configurations we seek. Sometimes, we must build temporary bridges.
- For example, in the IT relocation problem, the organization might become a lender, investor, or loan facilitator, to enable people who are relocated to secure mortgages for new homes.
- Plans that include interim configurations that we intend later to abandon aren't necessarily defective. And the people whose needs we're accommodating in this way aren't making trouble — they have legitimate needs that we must somehow address. Unless we can be flexible enough to find temporary bridges, change can be hard.
When change is hard, and when the job market is tight, some managers are tempted to communicate the change-or-else message. Resist the temptation. Someday, those who are unhappy will have alternatives. And they will choose them. First in this series Top Next Issue
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More articles on Organizational Change:
- Now We're in Chaos
- Among models of Change, the Satir Change Model has been especially useful for me. It describes how people
and systems respond to change, and handles well situations like the one that affected us all on September
- When Change Is Hard: I
- Sometimes changing organizations goes smoothly. More often, it doesn't. Whatever methodology we use
— and there are many methodologies available — difficulties can arise. When change is hard,
what's happening? What makes change hard?
- Patching Up the Cracks
- When things repeatedly "fall through the cracks," we're not doing the best we can. How can
we deal with the problem of repeatedly failing to do what we need to do? How can we patch up the cracks?
- Deciding to Change: Choosing
- When organizations decide to change what they do, the change sometimes requires that they change how
they make decisions, too. That part of the change is sometimes overlooked, in part, because it affects
most the people who make decisions. What can we do about this?
- The Passion-Professionalism Paradox
- Changing the direction of a group or a company requires passion and professionalism, two attributes
often in tension. Here's one possible way to resolve that tension.
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- Risk creep is a term that describes the insidious and unrecognized increase in risk that occurs despite our every effort to mitigate risk or avoid it altogether. What are the dominant sources of risk creep? Available here and by RSS on November 1.
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