Symbolic Self-Completion is a term from psychology that denotes a constellation of behavior patterns related to our attempts to maintain our definitions of ourselves. However we define ourselves in accomplishments or status, we communicate that definition to others. When we feel that the definition is complete and solid, we tend not to engage in symbolic self-completion. When we sense a tension between our true status and our self-definition, we tend toward substitution behavior — symbolic self-completion.
For example, juveniles who aspire to professional sports fame, and who haven't yet achieved fame, might acquire jerseys bearing the names and numbers of favored players. Or an adult who fancies herself as an influential author, but who hasn't published anything of note, might in conversation present herself as if she has expertise she lacks.
Although symbolic self-completion usually applies to individual behavior, when people define their accomplishments in terms of the achievements of the work teams to which they belong, those teams can also adopt behaviors that we can describe in terms of symbolic self-completion. When we understand those behaviors in this way, we can manage project-oriented organizations more effectively.
Here are three examples of the effects of symbolic self-completion on projects.
- Ineffective scope reduction
- When eliminating some goals from a project, we often encounter difficulty. People propose reasons why a particular way of scaling back won't save time or money, or they contend that curtailment can actually lengthen the schedule and increase the budget. Often, they're right. But, at times, eliminating a goal affects some people's ability to define themselves as experts. A form of symbolic self-completion might then drive people to advocate for the old goals, rather than accept the goal reduction.
- New goals that preserve the ability of people to define themselves as experts are less likely to be rejected.
- Zombie projects
- Some projects have failed, but persist as if they were still viable. They stumble on like zombies, continuing to consume resources. Or they are officially deprived of resources, but New goals that preserve the ability
of people to define themselves as
experts are less likely to be rejectedpeople work on them unofficially. Symbolic self-completion can sometimes drive people to keep the projects alive in whatever way they can because terminating these projects threatens their ability to define themselves.
- When terminating a project, seek to emphasize how new or remaining projects can enable analogous self-definition.
- Project termination
- Because projects can indeed define the people who champion them and work on them, terminating some projects can be an effective means of eliminating rivals as contenders for power or stature. Terminating a project can be a means of inflicting a deep psychological wound on anyone who defines their stature in terms of the project's goals.
- Contention for resources is not always the primary motivator of those who seek to end projects other than their own.
Are your projects always (or almost always) late and over budget? Are your project teams plagued by turnover, burnout, and high defect rates? Turn your culture around. Read 52 Tips for Leaders of Project-Oriented Organizations, filled with tips and techniques for organizational leaders. Order Now!
Your comments are welcomeWould you like to see your comments posted here? rbrendBFOsEFfeGlwXkYhner@ChacJBLVepGvOehzTcUgoCanyon.comSend me your comments by email, or by Web form.
About Point Lookout
Thank you for reading this article. I hope you enjoyed it and found it useful, and that you'll consider recommending it to a friend.
Support Point Lookout by joining the Friends of Point Lookout, as an individual or as an organization.
Do you face a complex interpersonal situation? Send it in, anonymously if you like, and I'll give you my two cents.
More articles on Project Management:
- Seeing Through the Fog
- When projects founder, we're often shocked — we thought everything was moving along smoothly.
Sometimes, with the benefit of hindsight, we can see that we had — or could have had — enough
information to determine that trouble was ahead. Somehow it was obscured by fog. How can we get better
at seeing through the fog?
- Risk Management Risk: I
- Risk Management Risk is the risk that a particular risk management plan is deficient. It's often overlooked,
and therefore often unmitigated. We can reduce this risk by applying some simple procedures.
- Projects as Proxy Targets: II
- Most projects have both supporters and detractors. When a project has been approved and execution begins,
some detractors don't give up. Here's Part II of a catalog of tactics detractors use to sow chaos.
- Why Scope Expands: I
- Scope creep is depressingly familiar. Its anti-partner, spontaneous and stealthy scope contraction,
has no accepted name, and is rarely seen. Why?
- More Obstacles to Finding the Reasons Why
- Retrospectives — also known as lessons learned exercises or after-action reviews — sometimes
miss important insights. Here are some additions to our growing catalog of obstacles to learning.
Forthcoming issues of Point Lookout
- Coming June 27: Interrupting Others in Meetings Safely: I
- In meetings we sometimes feel the need to interrupt others to offer a view or information, or to suggest adjusting the process. But such interruptions carry risk of offense. How can we interrupt others safely? Available here and by RSS on June 27.
- And on July 4: Interrupting Others in Meetings Safely: II
- When we feel the need to interrupt someone who's speaking in a meeting, to offer a view or information, we would do well to consider (and mitigate) the risk of giving offense. Here are some techniques for interrupting the speaker in situations not addressed by the meeting's formal process. Available here and by RSS on July 4.
I offer email and telephone coaching at both corporate and individual rates. Contact Rick for details at rbrenFFkDJIHqFPTsDeVPner@ChacyMLeXqqnqNsQWBPYoCanyon.com or (650) 787-6475, or toll-free in the continental US at (866) 378-5470.
Get the ebook!
Past issues of Point Lookout are available in six ebooks:
- Get 2001-2 in Geese Don't Land on Twigs (PDF, USD 11.95)
- Get 2003-4 in Why Dogs Wag (PDF, USD 11.95)
- Get 2005-6 in Loopy Things We Do (PDF, USD 11.95)
- Get 2007-8 in Things We Believe That Maybe Aren't So True (PDF, USD 11.95)
- Get 2009-10 in The Questions Not Asked (PDF, USD 11.95)
- Get all of the first twelve years (2001-2012) in The Collected Issues of Point Lookout (PDF, USD 28.99)
Are you a writer, editor or publisher on deadline? Are you looking for an article that will get people talking and get compliments flying your way? You can have 500 words in your inbox in one hour. License any article from this Web site. More info
- The Race to the South Pole: The Power of Agile Development
- On 14 December 1911, four men led by Roald
Amundsen reached the South Pole. Thirty-five days later, Robert F. Scott and four others followed. Amundsen
had won the race to the pole. Amundsen's party returned to base on 26 January 1912. Scott's party perished.
As historical drama, why this happened is interesting enough. Lessons abound. Among the more important
lessons are those that demonstrate the power of the agile approach to project management and product
development. Read more about this program. Here's
a date for this program:
- Ohio National Insurance, 1 Financial Way, Blue Ash, OH: July
Monthly Meeting, Cincinnati
chapter of the International Institute of Business Analysis. Register now.
- Ohio National Insurance, 1 Financial Way, Blue Ash, OH: July 17, Monthly Meeting, Cincinnati chapter of the International Institute of Business Analysis. Register now.
- The Power Affect: How We Express Our Personal Power
- Many people who possess real organizational power have a characteristic demeanor. It's the way they project their presence. I call this the power affect. Some people — call them power pretenders — adopt the power affect well before they attain significant organizational power. Unfortunately for their colleagues, and for their organizations, power pretenders can attain organizational power out of proportion to their merit or abilities. Understanding the power affect is therefore important for anyone who aims to attain power, or anyone who works with power pretenders. Read more about this program.