Symbolic Self-Completion is a term from psychology that denotes a constellation of behavior patterns related to our attempts to maintain our definitions of ourselves. However we define ourselves in accomplishments or status, we communicate that definition to others. When we feel that the definition is complete and solid, we tend not to engage in symbolic self-completion. When we sense a tension between our true status and our self-definition, we tend toward substitution behavior — symbolic self-completion.
For example, juveniles who aspire to professional sports fame, and who haven't yet achieved fame, might acquire jerseys bearing the names and numbers of favored players. Or an adult who fancies herself as an influential author, but who hasn't published anything of note, might in conversation present herself as if she has expertise she lacks.
Although symbolic self-completion usually applies to individual behavior, when people define their accomplishments in terms of the achievements of the work teams to which they belong, those teams can also adopt behaviors that we can describe in terms of symbolic self-completion. When we understand those behaviors in this way, we can manage project-oriented organizations more effectively.
Here are three examples of the effects of symbolic self-completion on projects.
- Ineffective scope reduction
- When eliminating some goals from a project, we often encounter difficulty. People propose reasons why a particular way of scaling back won't save time or money, or they contend that curtailment can actually lengthen the schedule and increase the budget. Often, they're right. But, at times, eliminating a goal affects some people's ability to define themselves as experts. A form of symbolic self-completion might then drive people to advocate for the old goals, rather than accept the goal reduction.
- New goals that preserve the ability of people to define themselves as experts are less likely to be rejected.
- Zombie projects
- Some projects have failed, but persist as if they were still viable. They stumble on like zombies, continuing to consume resources. Or they are officially deprived of resources, but New goals that preserve the ability
of people to define themselves as
experts are less likely to be rejectedpeople work on them unofficially. Symbolic self-completion can sometimes drive people to keep the projects alive in whatever way they can because terminating these projects threatens their ability to define themselves.
- When terminating a project, seek to emphasize how new or remaining projects can enable analogous self-definition.
- Project termination
- Because projects can indeed define the people who champion them and work on them, terminating some projects can be an effective means of eliminating rivals as contenders for power or stature. Terminating a project can be a means of inflicting a deep psychological wound on anyone who defines their stature in terms of the project's goals.
- Contention for resources is not always the primary motivator of those who seek to end projects other than their own.
Are your projects always (or almost always) late and over budget? Are your project teams plagued by turnover, burnout, and high defect rates? Turn your culture around. Read 52 Tips for Leaders of Project-Oriented Organizations, filled with tips and techniques for organizational leaders. Order Now!
Your comments are welcomeWould you like to see your comments posted here? rbrenogMhuqCxAnbfLvzbner@ChacigAthhhYwzZDgxshoCanyon.comSend me your comments by email, or by Web form.
About Point Lookout
Thank you for reading this article. I hope you enjoyed it and found it useful, and that you'll consider recommending it to a friend.
This article in its entirety was written by a human being. No machine intelligence was involved in any way.
Support Point Lookout by joining the Friends of Point Lookout, as an individual or as an organization.
Do you face a complex interpersonal situation? Send it in, anonymously if you like, and I'll give you my two cents.
More articles on Project Management:
- Seeing Through the Fog
- When projects founder, we're often shocked — we thought everything was moving along smoothly.
Sometimes, with the benefit of hindsight, we can see that we had — or could have had — enough
information to determine that trouble was ahead. Somehow it was obscured by fog. How can we get better
at seeing through the fog?
- Teamwork Myths: Formation
- Much of the conventional wisdom about teams is in the form of over-generalized rules of thumb, or myths.
In this first part of our survey of teamwork myths, we examine two myths about forming teams.
- The Politics of the Critical Path: I
- The Critical Path of a project or activity is the sequence of dependent tasks that determine the earliest
completion date of the effort. If you're responsible for one of these tasks, you live in a unique political
- Beyond Our Control
- When bad things happen, despite our plans and our best efforts, we sometimes feel responsible. We failed.
We could have done more. But is that really true? Aren't some things beyond our control?
- Should We Do This?
- Answering the question, "Should we do this?" is among the more difficult decisions organizational
leaders must make. Weinberger's Six Tests provide a framework for making these decisions. Careful application
of the framework can prevent disasters.
Forthcoming issues of Point Lookout
- Coming October 4: Self-Importance and Conversational Narcissism at Work: I
- Conversational narcissism is a set of behaviors that participants use to focus the exchange on their own self-interest rather than the shared objective. This post emphasizes the role of these behaviors in advancing a narcissist's sense of self-importance. Available here and by RSS on October 4.
- And on October 11: Self-Importance and Conversational Narcissism at Work: II
- Self-importance is one of four major themes of conversational narcissism. Knowing how to recognize the patterns of conversational narcissism is a fundamental skill needed for controlling it. Here are eight examples that emphasize self-importance. Available here and by RSS on October 11.
I offer email and telephone coaching at both corporate and individual rates. Contact Rick for details at rbrenogMhuqCxAnbfLvzbner@ChacigAthhhYwzZDgxshoCanyon.com or (650) 787-6475, or toll-free in the continental US at (866) 378-5470.
Get the ebook!
Past issues of Point Lookout are available in six ebooks:
- Get 2001-2 in Geese Don't Land on Twigs (PDF, )
- Get 2003-4 in Why Dogs Wag (PDF, )
- Get 2005-6 in Loopy Things We Do (PDF, )
- Get 2007-8 in Things We Believe That Maybe Aren't So True (PDF, )
- Get 2009-10 in The Questions Not Asked (PDF, )
- Get all of the first twelve years (2001-2012) in The Collected Issues of Point Lookout (PDF, )
Are you a writer, editor or publisher on deadline? Are you looking for an article that will get people talking and get compliments flying your way? You can have 500-1000 words in your inbox in one hour. License any article from this Web site. More info