Symbolic Self-Completion is a term from psychology that denotes a constellation of behavior patterns related to our attempts to maintain our definitions of ourselves. However we define ourselves in accomplishments or status, we communicate that definition to others. When we feel that the definition is complete and solid, we tend not to engage in symbolic self-completion. When we sense a tension between our true status and our self-definition, we tend toward substitution behavior — symbolic self-completion.
For example, juveniles who aspire to professional sports fame, and who haven't yet achieved fame, might acquire jerseys bearing the names and numbers of favored players. Or an adult who fancies herself as an influential author, but who hasn't published anything of note, might in conversation present herself as if she has expertise she lacks.
Although symbolic self-completion usually applies to individual behavior, when people define their accomplishments in terms of the achievements of the work teams to which they belong, those teams can also adopt behaviors that we can describe in terms of symbolic self-completion. When we understand those behaviors in this way, we can manage project-oriented organizations more effectively.
Here are three examples of the effects of symbolic self-completion on projects.
- Ineffective scope reduction
- When eliminating some goals from a project, we often encounter difficulty. People propose reasons why a particular way of scaling back won't save time or money, or they contend that curtailment can actually lengthen the schedule and increase the budget. Often, they're right. But, at times, eliminating a goal affects some people's ability to define themselves as experts. A form of symbolic self-completion might then drive people to advocate for the old goals, rather than accept the goal reduction.
- New goals that preserve the ability of people to define themselves as experts are less likely to be rejected.
- Zombie projects
- Some projects have failed, but persist as if they were still viable. They stumble on like zombies, continuing to consume resources. Or they are officially deprived of resources, but New goals that preserve the ability
of people to define themselves as
experts are less likely to be rejectedpeople work on them unofficially. Symbolic self-completion can sometimes drive people to keep the projects alive in whatever way they can because terminating these projects threatens their ability to define themselves.
- When terminating a project, seek to emphasize how new or remaining projects can enable analogous self-definition.
- Project termination
- Because projects can indeed define the people who champion them and work on them, terminating some projects can be an effective means of eliminating rivals as contenders for power or stature. Terminating a project can be a means of inflicting a deep psychological wound on anyone who defines their stature in terms of the project's goals.
- Contention for resources is not always the primary motivator of those who seek to end projects other than their own.
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More articles on Project Management:
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- Here's part one of a list of films and videos about project teams that weren't necessarily meant to
be about project teams. Most are available to borrow from the public library, and all are great fun.
- Risk Management Risk: II
- Risk Management Risk is the risk that a particular risk management plan is deficient. Here are some
guidelines for reducing risk management risk arising from risk interactions and change.
- How to Make Good Guesses: Tactics
- Making good guesses probably does take talent to be among the first rank of those who make guesses.
But being in the second rank is pretty good, too, and we can learn how to do that. Here are some
tactics for guessing.
- Deep Trouble and Getting Deeper
- Here's a catalog of actions people take when the projects they're leading are in deep trouble, and they're
pretty sure there's no way out.
- Ten Approaches to Managing Project Risks: I
- Risk management usually entails coping with losses if they do occur. Here's Part I of a concise summary
of the options for managing risk.
Forthcoming issues of Point Lookout
- Coming September 18: The Planning Fallacy and Self-Interest
- A well-known cognitive bias, the planning fallacy, accounts for many unrealistic estimates of project cost and schedule. Overruns are common. But another cognitive bias, and organizational politics, combine with the planning fallacy to make a bad situation even worse. Available here and by RSS on September 18.
- And on September 25: Planning Disappointments
- When we plan projects, we make estimates of total costs and expected delivery dates. Often these estimates are so wrong — in the wrong direction — that we might as well be planning disappointments. Why is this? Available here and by RSS on September 25.
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- The Race to the South Pole: Lessons in Leadership
On 14 December 1911, four men led by Roald Amundsen reached the South Pole. Thirty-five days later, Robert F. Scott and four others followed. Amundsen had won the race to the pole. Amundsen's party returned to base on 26 January 1912. Scott's party perished. As historical drama, why this happened is interesting enough. But to organizational leaders, business analysts, project sponsors, and project managers, the story is fascinating. We'll use the history of this event to explore lessons in leadership and its application to organizational efforts. A fascinating and refreshing look at leadership from the vantage point of history. Read more about this program.
Here's a date for this program:
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44017: November 7,
Kerzner Lecture Series/International Project Management Day, sponsored by Baldwin Wallace University and the Northeast Ohio Chapter of the Project Management Institute.
- Baldwin-Wallace University, 275 Eastland Road, Berea, Ohio 44017: November 7, Kerzner Lecture Series/International Project Management Day, sponsored by Baldwin Wallace University and the Northeast Ohio Chapter of the Project Management Institute. Register now.
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Many people who possess real organizational power have a characteristic demeanor. It's the way they project their presence. I call this the power affect. Some people — call them power pretenders — adopt the power affect well before they attain significant organizational power. Unfortunately for their colleagues, and for their organizations, power pretenders can attain organizational power out of proportion to their merit or abilities. Understanding the power affect is therefore important for anyone who aims to attain power, or anyone who works with power pretenders. Read more about this program.