As widely used as brainstorming is, the consequences of any weaknesses it might have can be significant. In last week's edition I described briefly an alternative called speedstorming that addresses some of the potential weaknesses of brainstorming [Hey 2009] [Joyce 2010]. My focus last time was the difference in degree of parallelism between conventional brainstorming and speedstorming. As a reminder, speedstorming has a structure similar to speed dating. Review my brief description.
The structure of speedstorming has consequences that transcend the difference in parallelism. Let's have a look.
- Controlling dominant contributors
- In brainstorming, some participants might dominate the session. They might be more knowledgeable, or they might just be more gregarious or less inhibited. The quality of their contributions might not justify the share of group time that they take for themselves, but more important, their dominance of the session can result in an unbalanced representation of group creativity. In speedstorming, because each pairing has its own conversation, the effect of dominant contributors is much reduced. And because some people are more comfortable contributing to a one-on-one conversation than they are contributing to a group conversation, the results of the pairings, taken as a whole, can be more representative of group creativity.
- One possible result of this difference is that speedstorming can be a more effective structure for eliciting and capturing ideas from those who are non-dominant or reluctant in the large group setting. This can be a noticeable advantage if group members are of widely different organizational rank, social stature, or experience levels, or if they hail from many different cultures. It can be an especially significant advantage if the more creative members of the group happen not to be the dominant members.
- Support for virtuality
- In brainstorming, The polling approach often used
in virtual brainstorming limits
the participants' ability to build
on previous contributionsif all participants aren't co-located, difficulties can arise relative to deciding who is being called upon to contribute at a given moment. A common solution to this problem is a polling scheme in which the facilitator polls each person in turn for contributions. In speedstorming, each pair can easily converse in a natural and familiar manner, whether or not they're co-located, either by telephone of by video link.
- The polling approach often used in virtual brainstorming limits the participants' ability to build on previous contributions, because many other contributions might intervene before the participant is recognized to contribute. In speedstorming, because there are only two people in a pair, the flow of ideas is more natural than it would be for a non-co-located larger group. Moreover, time zone differences in a large group that's dispersed can create difficulties for scheduling brainstorm sessions. In speedstorming, because each pair can have at most two time zones, scheduling is less complicated if the group can permit pairs to meet at times best suited to each pair.
- Controlling status competition
- Groups of all kinds are vulnerable to status competition, which is a dynamic in which two or more participants compete for status within the group by taking steps that they believe will earn them admiration. It is known that status competition can degrade group performance [Loch 2000], but the effect can be severe in ideation sessions. In ideation sessions, status competition measures take the form of competitive contributions to the flow of ideas. Status competitions are more likely to break out in brainstorming than in speedstorming, because the entire group is assembled in brainstorming, and therefore the status competitors have optimal access to the audience they're trying to impress.
- The problem with status competition is that there is no reliable way to maintain alignment between the standards of group admiration for contributions, and the needs of the enterprise. What seems like a clever contribution might not be in keeping with the goals of the ideation exercise. And misalignment is more likely as the status competition intensifies. Only carefully designed cultural architecture can mitigate this risk in brainstorming. In speedstorming, by contrast, the would-be competitors lack access to the group as a whole, because the group isn't assembled. That lack of access reduces the likelihood of competition erupting.
- Support for interdisciplinarity
- For some problems, finding solutions requires diversity in knowledge, experience, and perspective. When that diversity is such as to cross disciplines, the people contributing to the search for a solution might not know each other well, or might not think in the same terms. Brainstorming throws them all together in the same group, where coming to a shared understanding of the offered contributions can be challenging. In speedstorming, when two members of a pair represent distinct disciplines, they know it, and they can work together to understand each other.
- By carefully defining the Mobile group and the Stationary group (see "Brainstorming and Speedstorming: I," Point Lookout for February 20, 2019), the pairings of speedstorming can be arranged to produce what are expected to be fertile combinations. In this way, the team can focus the speedstorm to search in specific combinations of disciplines. If there is a risk of omitting potentially fertile but unrecognized combinations, brainstorming might be safer than speedstorming.
My own experience is that brainstorming is more effective when participants know each other. So if the group includes people who don't know each other well, as might happen for a virtual team or an interdisciplinary problem, speedstorming would seem to provide an important advantage. It would create opportunities for pairs to work together closely, possibly for the first time. For new groups that expect to work together over a period of time, speedstorming might provide a way to improve brainstorming performance. First in this series Top Next Issue
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More articles on Problem Solving and Creativity:
- Annoyance to Asset
- Unsolicited contributions to the work of one element of a large organization, by people from another,
are often annoying to the recipients. Sometimes the contributors then feel rebuffed, insulted, or frustrated.
Toxic conflict can follow. We probably can't halt the flow of contributions, but we can convert it from
a liability to a valuable asset.
- Backtracking in Incremental Problem Solving
- Incremental problem solving is fashionable these days. Whether called evolutionary, incremental, or
iterative, the approach entails unique risks. Managing those risks sometimes requires counterintuitive action.
- Is the Question "How?" or "Whether?"
- In group decision-making, tension sometimes develops between those who favor commitment to the opportunity
at hand, and those who repeatedly ask, "If we do that, how will we do it?" Why does this happen?
- How to Reject Expert Opinion: I
- When groups of decision-makers confront complex problems, they sometimes choose not to consult experts
or to reject their advice. How do groups come to make these choices?
- Contributions, Open and Closed
- We can classify contributions to discussions according to the likelihood that they stimulate new thought.
The more open they are, the more they stimulate new thought. How can we encourage open contributions?
Forthcoming issues of Point Lookout
- Coming November 20: Paid-Time-Off Risks
- Associated with the trend to a single pool of paid time off from separate categories for vacation, sick time, and personal days are what might be called paid-time-off risks. If your team must meet customer expectations or a schedule of deliverables, managing paid-time-off risks can be important. Available here and by RSS on November 20.
- And on November 27: Implicit Interrogations
- Investigations at work can begin with implicit interrogations — implicit because they're unannounced and unacknowledged. The goal is to determine what people did or knew without revealing that an investigation is underway. When asked, those conducting these interrogations often deny they're doing it. What's the nature of implicit interrogations? Available here and by RSS on November 27.
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