In Part I of our catalog of mechanisms that cause some team members to hold back their own efforts, we looked at three of the better-studied phenomena: social loafing, free riding, and the sucker effect. We continue now with some less-well-studied — but nonetheless common — mechanisms that lead to holding back. We'll take a look at what to do about holding back next time.
- Performance matching
- Performance matching is holding back so as to match the perceived level of others' contributions. It differs from free riding because free riders try to minimize their effort — to zero if possible. It differs from the sucker effect because performance matchers aren't trying to avoid the appearance of being exploited.
- Some performance matchers try to avoid the risks associated with contributing. For example, they might anticipate shunning by peers concerned about being outshone by high performers. Or, if under pressure to perform on other projects, performance matchers might be trying to deliver at low but acceptable levels.
- Futility effects
- Holding back can occur when a team member regards the group's efforts as futile because of wrongheaded design, looming external competition, mismanagement, corrupt leadership, or other factors. Those holding back might feel that they're doing no harm because the effort is doomed anyway.
- Some leaders or managers regard careful monitoring of individual effort as a deterrent to holding back. But if those holding back feel that no matter the value of their contributions, they will be deemed inadequate or be disregarded, then the deterrent effect of performance monitoring is limited. To achieve a measure of deterrence, group leaders and management must maintain a fair process of evaluation, and that process must be seen as fair.
- Sometimes people just get tired. They reduce their efforts — or they reduce time on the job — because they run out of energy. They might not admit exhaustion, because some cultures frown upon such admissions. And even when they do admit exhaustion, the admissions aren't always believed. Fatigue can also be a medical symptom, or a side effect of treatment.
- Determining the degree of exhaustion of In virtual teams, distance and time
differences can limit supervisors'
effectiveness, which can create
temptations for some team
members to hold backothers is notoriously difficult. It's likely that some people who are actually tired are thought to be holding back.
- Virtuality effects
- In virtual teams, distance and time differences can limit supervisors' effectiveness, which can create temptations for some team members to hold back, because they feel safe from detection. The temptation can be enhanced when those holding back are separated from peers in addition to supervisors.
- But virtual configurations can also contribute to misjudgments as supervisors and others assess levels of effort. That is, an observer might believe that someone is holding back, when in reality he or she is delivering acceptable or even superior levels of performance.
Is every other day a tense, anxious, angry misery as you watch people around you, who couldn't even think their way through a game of Jacks, win at workplace politics and steal the credit and glory for just about everyone's best work including yours? Read 303 Secrets of Workplace Politics, filled with tips and techniques for succeeding in workplace politics. More info
Update: April 8, 2018
When someone — call him Nick — in a workgroup or team exhibits narcissistic behavior that entails ruthless disregard for the feelings of others, he tends to target those he perceives as threats to his own status. Some might hold back their contributions as a defensive measure to avoid appearing to threaten Nick. See "Narcissistic Behavior at Work: VII," Point Lookout for May 2, 2018, for more.
Your comments are welcomeWould you like to see your comments posted here? rbrenmhXARWRMUvVyOdHlner@ChacxgDmtwOKrxnripPCoCanyon.comSend me your comments by email, or by Web form.
About Point Lookout
Thank you for reading this article. I hope you enjoyed it and found it useful, and that you'll consider recommending it to a friend.
Support Point Lookout by joining the Friends of Point Lookout, as an individual or as an organization.
Do you face a complex interpersonal situation? Send it in, anonymously if you like, and I'll give you my two cents.
More articles on Workplace Politics:
- Managing Pressure: Milestones and Deliveries
- Pressed repeatedly for "status" reports, you might guess that they don't want status —
they want progress. Things can get so nutty that responding to the status requests gets in the way of
doing the job. How does this happen and what can you do about it? Here's Part III of a set of tactics
and strategies for dealing with pressure.
- Confronting the Workplace Bully: I
- When a bully targets you, you have three options: accept the abuse; avoid the bully or escape; and confront
or fight back. Confrontation is a better choice than many believe — if you know what you're doing.
- OODA at Work
- OODA is a model of decision-making that's especially useful in rapidly evolving environments, such as
combat, marketing, politics, and emergency management. Here's a brief overview.
- Managing Non-Content Risks: I
- When project teams and their sponsors manage risk, they usually focus on those risks most closely associated
with the tasks — content risks. Meanwhile, other risks — non-content risks — get less
attention. Among these are risks related to the processes and politics by which the organization gets
- Workplace Anti-Patterns
- We find patterns of counter-effective behavior — anti-patterns — in every part of life,
including the workplace. Why? What are their features?
Forthcoming issues of Point Lookout
- Coming April 8: The New Virtual Meeting: Digressions
- The bane of meetings everywhere, even before the COVID-19 pandemic, has been digressions. But there are reasons to expect the incidence of digressions in meetings to increase now. What reasons could there be, and what can we do about digressions? Available here and by RSS on April 8.
- And on April 15: Incompetence: Traps and Snares
- Sometimes people judge as incompetent colleagues who are unprepared to carry out their responsibilities. Some of these "incompetents" are trapped or ensnared in incompetence, unable to acquire the ability to do their jobs. Available here and by RSS on April 15.
I offer email and telephone coaching at both corporate and individual rates. Contact Rick for details at rbrenmhXARWRMUvVyOdHlner@ChacxgDmtwOKrxnripPCoCanyon.com or (650) 787-6475, or toll-free in the continental US at (866) 378-5470.
Get the ebook!
Past issues of Point Lookout are available in six ebooks:
- Get 2001-2 in Geese Don't Land on Twigs (PDF, )
- Get 2003-4 in Why Dogs Wag (PDF, )
- Get 2005-6 in Loopy Things We Do (PDF, )
- Get 2007-8 in Things We Believe That Maybe Aren't So True (PDF, )
- Get 2009-10 in The Questions Not Asked (PDF, )
- Get all of the first twelve years (2001-2012) in The Collected Issues of Point Lookout (PDF, )
Are you a writer, editor or publisher on deadline? Are you looking for an article that will get people talking and get compliments flying your way? You can have 500 words in your inbox in one hour. License any article from this Web site. More info
- The Power Affect: How We Express Our Personal Power
Many people who possess real organizational power have a characteristic demeanor. It's the way they project their presence. I call this the power affect. Some people — call them power pretenders — adopt the power affect well before they attain significant organizational power. Unfortunately for their colleagues, and for their organizations, power pretenders can attain organizational power out of proportion to their merit or abilities. Understanding the power affect is therefore important for anyone who aims to attain power, or anyone who works with power pretenders. Read more about this program.
Beware any resource that speaks of "winning" at workplace politics or "defeating" it. You can benefit or not, but there is no score-keeping, and it isn't a game.