In many kinds of knowledge work the quality of the output is important enough that we require the people who perform the work to meet specified quality standards. When they don't, we intervene to take corrective action. That corrective action often requires changes to the way the work is performed, with the hope that the changes will lead to improved output quality. Sometimes this approach works well. But at other times, even though the changes seemed to bring about the desired improvement at the pilot scale, the results of the full-scale intervention are disappointing.
This post explores a plausible explanation of disappointing results of some interventions intended to address defects in knowledge work. That explanation depends on a model of how defects arise based on the idea of defect streams and their sources.
For concreteness, consider the case of an organization engaged in deploying a software security platform. That platform will support a large number of applications that an even larger number of people use in the course of their daily work. To ensure that users can do their work in a secure environment, it's important that the deployment meet strict security criteria — for the platform itself and for each application.
The people performing the work are required to follow complex procedures to ensure that each software application can be used safely. Although the procedures are similar in large part, they differ in detail depending on the type of software being installed, and on the particular product and release of that product. If the person performing the work executes it incorrectly, the evidence of the error might not appear immediately. Often, the error is discovered by the Quality Assurance team, which reports the error in a weekly defect report. We can regard these errors as comprising a defect stream.
Streams Those who devise procedure changes
to reduce the incidence of defects
must provide the resources necessary
to adopt their recommendationshave sources. We usually assume that the sources of the errors lie somewhere within the organization that is executing the deployment. Although it's common to assert that the cause of the errors is shoddy work by the people who last touched the defective work product, their behavior might not actually be the root cause.
Three possible candidate root causes are below:
- Unfunded mandated effort
- Announcing a procedure or procedure change is an important step in taking corrective actions. But unless the people who execute the procedure have access to the resources and time required to learn a procedure, or to learn about the latest changes, they cannot afford to acquire the knowledge they need to execute the altered procedure correctly.
- Those who design interventions intended to reduce the volume of the defect stream must provide the resources necessary to adopt the changes they are recommending. Absent those necessary resources, the people who execute the procedures in question will scrounge equivalent resources from someplace else. The result, often, is formation of new defect sources that feed the old defect streams, or which create new defect streams.
- Misallocating the cost of procedure competence
- The cost of procedure competence is the cost of training the people who execute the procedure, plus the cost of ensuring their continued competence after training is complete. We usually allocate that cost to the business unit in which those people perform their work. But in many cases, that allocation is erroneous. And it might even be the root cause of the defects.
- For example, consider a cumbersome and overly complicated procedure. In an extreme case, the procedure can be so gratuitously complex that nobody can apply it correctly with regularity. Defects are inevitable. Should not the cost of these defects be charged to the poor design of the procedure? Said differently, should not the cost of the training required to prevent defects be charged to the poor design of the procedure?
- That is, the cost of procedure competence ought not to be borne solely by the business units responsible for executing the procedure. Some of the costs might be due to procedure design. Allocating some costs to the unit responsible for the procedure design helps to ensure that procedures are designed with learning costs and execution costs in mind.
- Frequent changes in procedures
- Those who execute the procedures need to understand the procedures to avoid making errors. If changes are frequent, they need to monitor the status of procedures so that they'll be aware of changes that can affect their work. That monitoring activity competes with other responsibilities for their attention.
- The cost of a procedure change should include more than the cost of designing the change. Training and retraining are real costs. The unit that makes the change must provide resources to the units that must execute the change.
Although these observations are expressed in terms of defects in work product, they apply equally to compliance with policies. To see how, consider policies to correspond to procedures in the discussion above, and deviations from policy to be defects. Top Next Issue
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More articles on Project Management:
- The Cheapest Way to Run a Project Is with Enough Resources
- Cost reduction is so common that nearly every project plan today should include budget and schedule
for several rounds of reductions. Whenever we cut costs, we risk cutting too much, so it pays to ask,
"If we do cut too much, what are the consequences?"
- Scope Creep and Confirmation Bias
- As we've seen, some cognitive biases can contribute to the incidence of scope creep in projects and
other efforts. Confirmation bias, which causes us to prefer evidence that bolsters our preconceptions,
is one of these.
- Missing the Obvious: II
- With hindsight, we sometimes recognize that we could have predicted the very thing that just now surprised
us. Somehow, we missed the obvious. Why does this happen?
- Seven More Planning Pitfalls: I
- Planners and members of planning teams are susceptible to patterns of thinking that lead to unworkable
plans. But planning teams also suffer vulnerabilities. Two of these are Group Polarization and Trips
- Vendor Mismanagement
- When we outsource knowledge work to vendors, we expect to achieve the desired result with less risk
and uncertainty than if we did the work ourselves. But mission creep, mission retrenchment and employee
capture can lead to less welcome results.
Forthcoming issues of Point Lookout
- Coming October 12: Downscoping Under Pressure: II
- We sometimes "downscope" projects to bring them back on budget and schedule when they're headed for overruns. Downscoping doesn't always work. Cognitive biases like the sunk cost effect and confirmation bias can distort decisions about how to downscope. Available here and by RSS on October 12.
- And on October 19: Bullying by Proxy: I
- The form of workplace bullying perhaps most often observed involves a bully and a target. Other forms are less obvious. One of these, bullying by proxy, is especially difficult to control, because it so easily evades most anti-bullying policies. Available here and by RSS on October 19.
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