Performance management systems generally have a bad reputation. Sadly, it's a reputation well deserved. Although performance appraisal is often painful for both appraisers and the people whose performance is appraised, that isn't at the heart of the problems with performance management systems. Performance management systems are so poorly suited to their stated objectives that we really must call them performance mismanagement systems.
Their flaws are many. In the next installment of this exploration, I examine some unintended consequences of these systems. In this Part I, I examine four of the foundational assumptions that seem most at odds with the goal of helping organizations and their people reach their potential.
- The fallacy of composition
- A logical argument is based on a fallacy known as the fallacy of composition when it assumes that if a statement is true about a part of the whole, then the statement is true about the whole. For example, we commit the fallacy of composition when we conclude that a bicycle is made of rubber because one of the tires is made of rubber.
- A fundamental premise of many performance management systems is the idea that when we elevate the performance of every individual in the organization, then we have done much to elevate the performance of the entire organization. Because maximum performance does require resources, and because resources are finite, maximizing the personal performance of each person in the enterprise doesn't necessarily maximize enterprise performance. One can easily imagine situations in which optimum enterprise performance requires that some activities be curtailed so that we can undertake others with greater energy.
- The reification error
- We commit a reification error when we treat an abstract concept as if it were a real thing. For example, performance is not a thing. A person's performance cannot be measured in any way analogous to measuring a person's weight or height. Thus, assigning a grade to someone's performance is inherently subjective; making it seem objective doesn't make performance a real thing.
- The data generated by performance management systems is not a set of performance measurements. Rather, it is a set of performance appraisals. When we accept as a goal of a performance management system elevating performance appraisal of every employee, we might be inviting those performers to take steps that actually degrade organizational performance. To avoid educating the more devious amongst us, I leave to the reader's imagination — or recollection — the question of how some people might elevate their appraisals, as opposed to elevating their performance.
- The myth of identifiable contributions
- The myth of The myth of identifiable contributions is
the belief that we can accurately assess
someone's performance on the basis of
contributions because any and all
contributions an employee
makes are identifiableidentifiable contributions is the belief that we can accurately assess someone's performance on the basis of contributions because any and all contributions an employee makes are identifiable. That is, we assume that when we ask people to generate lists of their contributions to the organizational mission, they can do so in relatively short order. Or we can ask them to keep personal journals listing their contributions. And when the supervisor then scans these lists, the supervisor recalls and can confirm that the entries in the lists are complete and accurate.
- While people can certainly generate such lists, well-known cognitive biases limit their value. As I recently discussed, the Availability Heuristic provides one limit. But another limit is even more important — our inability to predict the future. The value of some contributions might not become clear until far into the future, when developments not yet conceived finally become available. And inversely, what seems now to be a positive contribution might be proven at some time in the future to be misdirection or waste or worse. And some contributions are never recognized as contributions. For example, we rarely regard as a "contribution" the sometimes-courageous act of asking a question that reveals an inherent flaw in a concept and which then leads to cancellation of a product development effort that would have ultimately failed. Asking such questions can prevent the waste of significant resources, and help the organization avoid serious embarrassment or even bankruptcy.
- The myth of omniscient supervision
- It is commonly assumed that supervisors are fully aware of the activities of the people they supervise, that they are qualified to assess the value of those contributions, and that they could actually perform the work of those people. Essentially, it is assumed that relative to the work of the people supervised, supervisors are omniscient.
- In the modern workplace, especially the knowledge-oriented workplace, these assumptions are usually invalid. Consequently, many supervisors are unable to objectively appraise the quality of the work of everyone they supervise. To perform these appraisals, they rely on claims and assertions of the supervisee, and on extrinsic indicators such as comments from the leaders of teams to which the supervisee has been detailed, the opinions of the peers of the supervisee, the timeliness of delivery of work products, and the social standing of the supervisee. This approach renders the supervisor's appraisal vulnerable to tactics some employees use to project an image of capability and productivity that is at odds with the reality. The appraisal is also vulnerable to malicious tactics employed by third parties, including rivals, who provide comments about the supervisee's activities.
Is every other day a tense, anxious, angry misery as you watch people around you, who couldn't even think their way through a game of Jacks, win at workplace politics and steal the credit and glory for just about everyone's best work including yours? Read 303 Secrets of Workplace Politics, filled with tips and techniques for succeeding in workplace politics. More info
Your comments are welcomeWould you like to see your comments posted here? rbrenmhXARWRMUvVyOdHlner@ChacxgDmtwOKrxnripPCoCanyon.comSend me your comments by email, or by Web form.
About Point Lookout
Thank you for reading this article. I hope you enjoyed it and found it useful, and that you'll consider recommending it to a friend.
Support Point Lookout by joining the Friends of Point Lookout, as an individual or as an organization.
Do you face a complex interpersonal situation? Send it in, anonymously if you like, and I'll give you my two cents.
More articles on Critical Thinking at Work:
- My Boss Is Driving Me Nuts
- When things go badly, many of us experience stress, and we might indulge various appetites in harmful
ways. Some of us say things like "My boss is driving me nuts," or "She made me so angry."
These explanations are rarely legitimate.
- Constancy Assumptions
- We necessarily make assumptions about our lives, including our work, because assumptions simplify things.
And usually, our assumptions are valid. But not always.
- Call in the Right Expert
- When solving a problem is beyond us, we turn to experts, but sometimes we turn to the wrong experts.
That can make the problem even worse. Why? How does this happen? What can we do about it?
- When Fixing It Doesn't Fix It: I
- When complex systems misbehave, a common urge is to find any way at all to end the misbehavior. Succumbing
to that urge can be a big mistake. Here's why we succumb.
- The Stupidity Attribution Error
- In workplace debates, we sometimes conclude erroneously that only stupidity can explain why our debate
partners fail to grasp the elegance or importance of our arguments. There are many other possibilities.
Forthcoming issues of Point Lookout
- Coming October 23: Power Distance and Teams
- One of the attributes of team cultures is something called power distance, which is a measure of the overall comfort people have with inequality in the distribution of power. Power distance can determine how well a team performs when executing high-risk projects. Available here and by RSS on October 23.
- And on October 30: Power Distance and Risk
- Managing or responding to project risks is much easier when team culture encourages people to report problems and question any plans they have reason to doubt. Here are five examples that show how such encouragement helps to manage risk. Available here and by RSS on October 30.
I offer email and telephone coaching at both corporate and individual rates. Contact Rick for details at rbrenmhXARWRMUvVyOdHlner@ChacxgDmtwOKrxnripPCoCanyon.com or (650) 787-6475, or toll-free in the continental US at (866) 378-5470.
Get the ebook!
Past issues of Point Lookout are available in six ebooks:
- Get 2001-2 in Geese Don't Land on Twigs (PDF, )
- Get 2003-4 in Why Dogs Wag (PDF, )
- Get 2005-6 in Loopy Things We Do (PDF, )
- Get 2007-8 in Things We Believe That Maybe Aren't So True (PDF, )
- Get 2009-10 in The Questions Not Asked (PDF, )
- Get all of the first twelve years (2001-2012) in The Collected Issues of Point Lookout (PDF, )
Are you a writer, editor or publisher on deadline? Are you looking for an article that will get people talking and get compliments flying your way? You can have 500 words in your inbox in one hour. License any article from this Web site. More info
- The Race to the South Pole: Lessons in Leadership
On 14 December 1911, four men led by Roald Amundsen reached the South Pole. Thirty-five days later, Robert F. Scott and four others followed. Amundsen had won the race to the pole. Amundsen's party returned to base on 26 January 1912. Scott's party perished. As historical drama, why this happened is interesting enough. But to organizational leaders, business analysts, project sponsors, and project managers, the story is fascinating. We'll use the history of this event to explore lessons in leadership and its application to organizational efforts. A fascinating and refreshing look at leadership from the vantage point of history. Read more about this program.
Here's a date for this program:
- Baldwin-Wallace University, 275 Eastland Road, Berea, Ohio
44017: November 7,
Kerzner Lecture Series/International Project Management Day, sponsored by Baldwin Wallace University and the Northeast Ohio Chapter of the Project Management Institute.
- Baldwin-Wallace University, 275 Eastland Road, Berea, Ohio 44017: November 7, Kerzner Lecture Series/International Project Management Day, sponsored by Baldwin Wallace University and the Northeast Ohio Chapter of the Project Management Institute. Register now.
- The Power Affect: How We Express Our Personal Power
Many people who possess real organizational power have a characteristic demeanor. It's the way they project their presence. I call this the power affect. Some people — call them power pretenders — adopt the power affect well before they attain significant organizational power. Unfortunately for their colleagues, and for their organizations, power pretenders can attain organizational power out of proportion to their merit or abilities. Understanding the power affect is therefore important for anyone who aims to attain power, or anyone who works with power pretenders. Read more about this program.